Concerns over the Zika virus have government agencies dispersing toxic pesticides across some U.S. cities by land and air. Few people are aware that the risk of long-term effects from pesticide exposure is much higher than those that are associated with this mild viral infection spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
Most people who contract the Zika virus (80 percent) exhibit no symptoms at all and are not even aware they’ve been infected. The other 20 percent (1 in 5) experience symptoms that are similar to the common flu (fever, rash, joint pain, conjunctivitis (red eyes), headache, muscle pain). According to the CDC itself, symptoms usually only last a few days to a week, don’t typically require hospital treatment, and rarely results in death. Once infected, then you most likely have life-long protection from future infection.1
This is in large contrast to influenza, which is responsible for about 36,000 deaths per year and more than 200,000 hospitalizations in the United States alone and certainly warrants no call to frantically saturate communities with toxins that are far worse than the Zika virus itself.²
But Doesn’t the Zika Virus Cause Microcephaly?
The Zika virus has been around since 1947, and as reported in a recent article in Scientific American magazine, it “has never been known to cause microcephaly before. (Microcephaly is typically caused by exposure to toxic substances during pregnancy, genetic abnormalities or diseases during pregnancy like rubella or herpes.”2
As reported in Nature this past July, the “Zika virus has spread throughout Brazil, but extremely high rates of microcephaly have been reported only in the country’s northeast. Although evidence suggests that Zika can cause microcephaly, the clustering pattern hints that other environmental, socio-economic or biological factors could be at play.” Fatima Marinho, the director of information and health analysis at Brazil’s ministry of health states, “we suspect that something more than Zika virus is causing the high intensity and severity of cases. If that turns out to be true, it could change researchers’ assessment of the risk that Zika poses to pregnant women and their children.”3
Although initially it was believed there were 4,783 cases of microcephaly in Brazil from January 2015 to January 2016, it was later determined that the real number was 483 when cases were confirmed. The number of yearly cases is usually about 163. Additionally, only 17 of these cases demonstrated evidence of being connected to infection with the Zika virus. In the United States, there are typically 25,000 cases of microcephaly every year, and none of them were caused by Zika. So we had a much higher rate of microcephaly than Brazil (40 times more common) long before the virus showed up in the U.S.4,5
Furthermore, a group of Argentine physicians believe that the real cause for the increase in microcephaly in Brazil is caused by a larvacide (a type of pesticide) that has been added to the water supply to eradicate mosquito larvae in drinking water tanks. Pyriproxyfen has been put into the drinking water in the areas where microcephaly has increased. The rise in birth defects in this area did not occur until after this larvacide was added to the water. The physicians stated, “malformations detected in thousands of children from pregnant women living in areas where the Brazilian state added pyriproxyfen to drinking water is not a coincidence.”6
Considering the fact that historically one of the primary causes of microcephaly has been exposure to toxic substances, this seems like a much more plausible cause. Pyriproxyfen is manufactured by a company called Sumitoma who refers to themselves as a subsidiary of the Biotech giant Monsanto who is also responsible for manufacturing glyphosate, GMOs and other toxins that are destroying people’s health.
This group of physicians also points out there has never been a case of microcephaly connected to past break outs of Zika. Despite the fact that in countries where Zika epidemics have occurred about 75 percent of the population was infected. “In countries such as Colombia where there are plenty of Zika cases, there are no records of microcephaly linked to Zika.”
Another group called Abrasco, which consists of “technicians, professionals, students and teachers associated with public health in Brazil” stated the following in a report:
“In 2014 a new larvicide pyriproxyfen was introduced in the drinking water of the population in households and public roads … This larvicide is a juvenile hormone analogue or juvenoid, with the mechanism of action of inhibiting the development of insect adult characteristics (e.g. wings, maturation of the reproductive organs and external genitalia), keeping with aspect immature (nymph or larva), that acts on endocrine disruption and is teratogenic and inhibits the formation of the adult insect.
“The invisible hand of damage to the environment and human health arising from the use of chemicals in vector control has not been properly studied or revealed to vulnerable populations, including public health workers. Its harmful effects are totally disregarded both the worsening of viruses, and in the emergence of other diseases such as allergies, immunotoxicity, cancer, hormonal disorders and neurotoxicity among others.”7
You should take note that the mechanism of action of pyriproxyfen is that it causes “malformations” in the larvae. The very same scenario which is occurring in pregnant women.
What About Guillain-Barré Syndrome?
Now the CDC is claiming that there may be an association between Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and Zika. Guillain-Barré Syndrome is a rare autoimmune condition that affects the nervous system and results in paralysis. It typically occurs following a viral infection. However, it is also a common side-effect of the flu vaccine and rates of GBS were on the rise before the increase in the ZIka virus.8
A report at Health Impact News shows that statistics from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reveal “that the flu vaccine remains the top vaccine causing injuries which are being compensated through vaccine court, and that Guillain-Barré Syndrome, a crippling disease, remains the top injury being awarded compensation due to the seasonal flu vaccine.”
Risks of Pesticide Exposure to Kill Mosquitoes
Naled, the poison of choice at this time for eradicating Zika-carrying mosquitoes, is an organophosphate which was banned in Europe in 2005 and even Puerto Rico refuses to use it. But, most importantly, naled is exceptionally threatening to babies in the womb. Naled itself has the potential to cause birth defects in humans like microcephaly.
According to the Journal of Pesticide Reform, “like all organophosphates, naled [Dibrom] is toxic to the nervous system. Symptoms of exposure include headaches, nausea, and diarrhea. In laboratory tests, naled exposure caused increased aggressiveness and a deterioration of memory and learning. Naled’s breakdown product dichlorvos (another organophosphate insecticide) interferes with prenatal brain development. In laboratory animals, exposure for just 3 days during pregnancy when the brain is growing quickly reduced brain size 15 percent. Dichlorvos also causes cancer, according to the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens. In laboratory tests, it caused leukemia and pancreatic cancer. Two independent studies have shown that children exposed to household “no-pest” strips containing dichlorvos have a higher incidence of brain cancer than unexposed children.”9
Therefore, if we see an increase in microcephaly in the “Zika zones” the government agencies will blame it on the virus, when in reality it could be the result of the pesticides being used to eradicate the mosquitoes.
Dr. Naresh Kumar, a Professor of Public Health at the University of Miami, told CBS Miami, that all pesticides “are a neurotoxin, meaning it will directly affect our nervous system.” “It will affect not only the pregnant woman … it is also equally for children who have asthma and airway disease because when you are spraying in the air, these aerosols stay in the air for at least five days.”10
“Naled kills insects by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme involved in the transmission of nerve impulses from one nerve cell to another. This causes a “jam” in the transmission system, resulting in restlessness, depression, seizures, and loss of consciousness.“11,12
Unfortunately, acetylcholinesterase is also an important enzyme in the human body and naled can affect us in the same manner. Acetylcholinesterase manages the metabolism of a critical neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is responsible for regulating the autonomic nervous system and many basic functions like movement, equilibrium, mood, attention, arousal, intelligence, and sleep.
When acetylcholinesterase is inhibited by naled or any other substance, then acetylcholine cannot break down as it should, which results in an elevated level. When acetylcholine is in excess it produces symptoms like high anxiety, panic attacks, fear, depression, restlessness, insomnia and possibly seizures and loss of consciousness. It keeps one stuck in a hyper-aroused state that puts great stress on the adrenal glands and perpetuates sympathetic nervous system dominance. Neurotransmission is disrupted.
Exposure to naled at low doses (whether by breathing, through the skin, or orally) inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE). “In studies conducted by naled manufacturers, exposure of rats to naled in air at a dose of 0.3 milligrams per kilogram of body weight (mg/kg) per day for three weeks, skin exposures of 20 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks, and oral exposure of 10 mg/ kg per day for 4 weeks caused inhibition of AChE. Long-term exposure also caused AChE inhibition; reduced AChE activity occurred in dogs exposed orally to 2 mg/kg per day for 1 year and in rats exposed orally to the same dose for 2 years. In addition, the long-term study with dogs found that doses of 2 mg/kg per day also caused mineralization of the spinal cord.”13
The breakdown product of naled, dichlorvos, inhibits activity of another enzyme in the nervous system of rats called neuropathy target esterase. “Inhibition of this enzyme causes partial paralysis of the hind legs followed by incoordination. In experiments conducted by biochemists at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (India), doses of 6 mg/kg per day reduced the enzyme’s activity by about 40 percent.”14
Exposure to dichlorvos (naled’s break down product) has also been shown to cause degeneration of dopaminergic neurons (neurons that produce and transmit the critical neurotransmitter dopamine) and a decrease in dopamine levels. “The degenerative changes were accompanied by a loss of 60-80% of the nigral dopamine neurons and 60-70% reduction in striatal dopamine.”15
Insufficient levels of dopamine are associated with Parkinson’s, ADHD, drug and alcohol addiction, sugar and carb addiction, gambling addiction, sympathetic nervous system dominance, depression, binge eating, adrenal fatigue, inability to feel joy, loss of apathy and motivation, poor impulse control, anti-social behavior and much more.
Dichlorvos has also been shown to cause a decrease in serotonin levels.16 As you likely know, insufficient levels of serotonin are associated with depression, anxiety, binge eating, addictions of all kinds, obsessive compulsive behavior, adrenal fatigue, aggression, gut disorders and loss of feelings of well-being and inner peace.
Organophosphates in general have been shown to affect the gut biome in a variety of ways. For example, “chlorpyrifos exposure during development affects the gut microbiota, impairs the intestinal lining, and stimulates the immune system of pup rats. Another study also shows that chlorpyrifos affects gut microbiota, resulting in intestinal inflammation and abnormal intestinal permeability.” They also increase blood glucose levels.17
A study from the University of California found that the children born from pregnant women who had organophosphates applied nearby their home during pregnancy had a 60 percent increased risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.18
Organophosphorous compounds are so toxic they have been used by governments throughout the word as chemical weapons.
“Naled is more potent when exposure occurs through breathing than when exposure occurs through eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. Toxicologists at the University of California found that inhalation was 20 times more toxic to rats than oral dosing (dosing through the mouth) of naled.”
“The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) came to a similar conclusion based on tests submitted to the agency by naled’s manufacturer: the dose required to cause cholinesterase inhibition through inhalation exposure was less than 1/6 of the lowest oral dose causing the same effect.”
“An additional study by the University of California researchers mentioned above found that small droplets of naled (the size produced by ultra low volume sprayers often used in mosquito spraying) were about four times more acutely toxic than larger droplets.”
“Aerial applications of naled can drift up to one-half mile.”19
Naled’s Impact on Wildlife and the Environment
In addition to mosquitoes, naled also kills other insects, fish and other aquatic creatures, birds, butterflies, and bees, and damages some types of plants. Tests that were conducted by the manufacturer of naled discovered that ducks eating naled laced food “produced fewer viable eggs, and hatched fewer ducklings than unexposed mallards.” A zoologist at the University of Florida zoologist “found a “major loss” in insect diversity in sprayed sites.”20
When naled was sprayed in South Carolina this past August, the Flowertown Bee Farm and Supply in Summerville lost more than “3 million” bees in a matter of minutes. “Stressed insects tried to flee their nests, only to surrender in little clumps at hive entrances.” Juanita Stanley, the company owner, said the farm “looks like it’s been nuked.” “Those that didn’t die immediately were poisoned trying to drag out the dead,” “Now, I’m going to have to destroy my hives, the honey, all my equipment. It’s all contaminated,” said Stanley. One woman who walked through the farm wrote on Facebook, it was “like visiting a cemetery, pure sadness.” “Andrew Macke, a hobby beekeeper, said he lost thousands of bees as well.”21, 22
Considering the fact that honeybees are already facing the threat of extinction, which would have profound consequences on the world’s food supply, this should be totally unacceptable. Not to mention the pure cruelty for such senseless killing and disrespect for another species. Although less efficient than bees, butterflies that are also wiped out from naled, are an important pollinator as well.
Permethrins are No Better
Another pesticide widely used for mosquito control is pyrethroids or permethrins. Permethrins kill their victim by modifying the normal biochemistry and physiology of the membrane sodium channels and altering the nerve function. In other words, it paralyzes the nervous system. In rats, studies have found that permethrin can alter fecal microbiota and cause vitamin D deficiencies.
Other symptoms in animals associated with pyrethroids include hyperactivity, tremors, urination, defecation, incoordination, hyper-excitability, salivation, aggression, seizures, convulsions, paralysis, respiratory failure and death. It is also toxic to beneficial insects like bees, small mammals, birds, cats and aquatic creatures.
In humans it has been show to impair glucose homeostasis and may induce headaches, convulsions, itching, burning and prickling skin, tremors, asthma, and nausea. Permethrins are linked to a variety of serious conditions like autism, birth defects, depression, breast cancer, liver disease, kidney problems, learning disability, disorders of the endocrine and nervous systems, thyroid damage and Parkinson’s.23,24,25,26,27,28,29
A study in New York that followed pregnant women exposed to permethrin sprayed to kill cockroaches in their home found that children with the highest level of prenatal exposure to permethrin were three times as likely to have learning disabilities and scored about four points lower on an intelligence test.30
Another study in the Archives of Neurology found that “if you used the insecticide permethrin, you were three times more likely to develop” Parkinson’s. 31Another study in California found that mothers who were exposed to pyrethroids sprayed near their home in the third trimester of pregnancy had an 87 percent increase in risk of autism for the children.32
To make matters worse, permethrins do not kill their intended victim, they just knock it down and paralyze. So, another toxin called piperonyl butoxide is usually combined with permethrins to make it more effective. Piperonyl butoxide is highly toxic to the nervous system as well as the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, liver, and reproductive system. It is associated with symptoms like renal damage, hyper-excitability, vomiting, weight loss, anorexia, prenatal damage convulsions and coma. It too may be carcinogenic and is also toxic to birds, fish and other aquatic creatures.
Piperonyl butoxide achieves it goal by impairing the detoxification pathways of the intended victim, which permits the pesticide naled to remain in the victim for a longer amount of time. In other words, these two chemicals work together with one knocking the target down and attacking its nervous system and the other inhibiting its ability to detox the chemical out of its system.33 In susceptible individuals, that is exactly what they do to the human body as well.
It’s important to note that the more “natural” version of permethrins derived from the dried shower head of a plant in the chrysanthemum family, known as pyrethrum or pyrethrins is a neurotoxin as well. It affects the nervous system in the same manner (paralysis) as the synthetic form and is also associated with tremors, autism, etc. and it is also toxic to fish, birds and small mammals.
Many public health officials will try and convince you that permethrins are safe because they are a synthetic derivative of chrysanthemum plant. Many of them are uniformed or simply lie, by trying to make it sound like it is natural. In the first place it is not natural, and in the second place, even if it was, it is still associated with the same risks.
Spraying for Mosquitoes is Not Even Effective
Repeatedly the CBS news has shown the alarming images of pesticide spraying in Florida and immediately after reporting the fact that it was taking place they would then go on to explain that spraying, both by land and air, was ineffective. At one point, they stated something to the effect that the spraying was only being done to make people feel better by assuring them that some kind of action was taking place.34
One public health official stated that we were not going to be able to spray our way out of this, that we need to get the larvae in standing water.35
“The most effective way to combat Zika is for people to get rid of their water containers,” said Joseph Conlon, a spokesman for the American Mosquito Control Association. He also said that they’d rather not spray, but people need to get rid of their standing water and trash, which also invites larvae.36
In regard to aerial spraying, Global expert Dr. Michael Callahan (co-founder of the Zika foundation) says that it’s not only an ineffective strategy to combat the aedes aegypti mosquito which carries the tropical disease he termed “dengue fever light,” but it may be counterproductive by wiping out predators who might eat carrier mosquitos.37
Several studies have shown that spraying for mosquitoes actually increases the mosquito population.38
Don’t Spray Yourself with DEET
Like any other pesticide, DEET is a neurotoxin. The recommendation to coat yourself, especially children and pregnant women, with this toxic substance is one of the most ludicrous pieces of advice one can hand out. DEET is absorbed very rapidly through the skin. Within six hours, 48 percent of the application is absorbed. It is absorbed by the gut as well.
DEET kills its target in the same manner as naled, which I described above – it inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase in both insects and mammals,39 which means it can cause an excess of acetylcholine and all the associated complications we already discussed like disrupted neurotransmission, hyper-stimulation, anxiety, depression, restlessness, seizures and loss of consciousness.
Furthermore, DEET has the ability to increase the potency of another type of pesticide called carbamates when used in combination. Carbamates are another class of pesticides that is commonly used to kill mosquitoes and other insects that also inhibits acetylcholinesterase.40 This would increase inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Carbamates are widely used on the food supply, so if you aren’t eating organic, you are consuming carbamate on a daily basis and it is present in your bloodstream. DEET has also been shown to have a synergistic affect with permethrins as well.
“A study conducted in the late 1980s on Everglades National Park employees to determine the effects of DEET found that a full one-quarter of the subjects studied experienced negative health effects that they blamed on exposure to the chemical. Effects included rashes, skin irritation, numb or burning lips, nausea, headaches, dizziness and difficulty concentrating.”41
“Several cases of young children developing toxic encephalopathy (severe brain involvement) have been associated with the use of DEET, including one death, following repeated exposure to 10% DEET. The toxic encephalopathy was characterized by agitation, weakness, disorientation, ataxia, seizures, coma and death.”
“Duke Medical University pharmacologist Mohamed Abou-Donia, Ph.D. conducted numerous studies in rats, two of them published in 2001, which clearly demonstrate that frequent and prolonged applications of DEET cause neurons to die in regions of the brain that control muscle movement, learning, memory and concentration.”42
Abou-Donia also found that combined exposure to DEET and permethrin… can lead to motor deficits and learning and memory dysfunction and disruption of the blood brain barrier.
In one of these studies by Abou-Donia, researchers sought to determine the effects of permethrins and DEET “on Persian Gulf War (PGW) veterans because they were used extensively in that war. Many PGW veterans complain of chronic symptoms, including headache, loss of memory, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, and ataxia, which causes an inability to coordinate muscular movements. The authors found that exposure to both DEET and permethrin experienced by service personnel in the PGW has played an important role in causing these illnesses.”43
The toxicity of DEET may be significantly increased if it is combined with ethyl and isopropyl alcohols and freon, both of which are common ingredients in DEET repellents.
We have Disney World, Universal Orlando and SeaWorld distributing free DEET to its customers. Doctors on television telling pregnant women to use it.44 One of the most disturbing actions currently is that some schools are spraying their children down before class. Oh, yeah, let’s impair all the children’s brain chemistry so that it will be difficult for them to sit still in class, impair their cognitive functions so they can’t learn or process information properly, incite anxiety and depression, and promote aggression towards others. Then they wonder why we have an epidemic of violence in our society.
There are many less toxic alternatives to DEET which include a variety of herbs like lemongrass, rosewood, cinnamon oil, and neem. Dr. Callahan, from the Zika foundation has stated that lemon eucalyptus repellant is an effective repellent.45 Even the CDC has confirmed that lemon eucalyptus oil is as effective as DEET.46 Catnip is ten times more effective at repelling mosquitos than DEET.47
Pesticides are not the Solution
There is no solid evidence that Zika causes microcephaly or Guillain-Barré. Even if there was, spraying the citizens with a toxic pesticide that can lead to even more damage to health cannot be the solution. Efforts must be made to find less toxic and harmful methods for eradicating mosquitoes.
As you can see, there are many serious risks associated with pesticide use. Spraying our communities with them is reckless, irresponsible and destructive. Doing it against our will is an act of assault and the individuals responsible for these actions should (but won’t) face criminal charges.
Our government agencies and public health officials are not concerned with protecting the health of our citizens. They are concerned with protecting the interests of Monsanto and other pesticide manufacturers and vaccine makers.
If they were truly concerned with protecting human health, then they would be even more concerned about the pesticides they are dispersing than the virus carrying mosquitoes. Poisoning the entire population to reduce the risk of a lesser threat is total insanity.
If spraying is taking place in your area, speak out against pesticides. If you do not object, public health agencies and the government will continue to put the interests of the vaccine industry and pesticide manufacturers before the interests of the community.
“Miami’s Wynwood neighborhood only had one single spraying with Naled, which also led to protests and then immediate cessation of the organophosphate neurotoxin aerial spraying.”48
At the very least, know the spray schedule in your vicinity, stay indoors and keep the windows shut during spraying. Cover everything in your yard during spray time. Give some serious consideration to relocating to an area where spraying does not occur.
If you want to protect the health of your unborn child, one of the best actions you can take is to avoid exposure to toxins like pesticides.
Even if they announce a new and supposedly “safer” pesticide, don’t buy it. All pesticides are neurotoxins. They “operate through one of three primary mechanisms: a) inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), b) voltage-gated sodium channel disruption, and/or c) inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).49
Each of these have a profound negative effect on not only the mental, physical and spiritual health of human beings, but on our society as whole by impairing areas of the brain that affect impulse control, aggression, and one’s ability to feel compassion and empathy for one another.
There is no safe level of a pesticide. Other alternatives must be sought.
1. CDC. Zika Virus. http://www.cdc.gov/zika/index.html
2.Dina Fine Maron. What’s Behind Brazil’s Alarming Surge in Babies Born with Small Heads? January 6, 2016. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-s-behind-brazil-s-alarming-surge-in-babies-born-with-small-heads/
3. Declan Butler. Brazil Asks whether Zika Acts Alone to Cause Birth Defects. Nature 535 July 28, 2016. http://www.nature.com/news/brazil-asks-whether-zika-acts-alone-to-cause-birth-defects-1.20309
4. John P. Thomas. Zika a Masterpiece of Public Mind Control. Health Impact News. September 29, 2016. http://healthimpactnews.com/2016/zika-a-masterpiece-of-public-mind-control/
5. John P. Thomas. Zika: A Real Threat or Another Hoax to Promote Medical Tyranny? https://healthimpactnews.com/2016/zika-a-real-threat-or-another-hoax-to-promote-medical-tyranny/
6. Makia Freeman. Zika or Insecticide Pyriproxyfen Behind Microcephaly Cases? The Freedom Articles. http://freedom-articles.toolsforfreedom.com/zika-or-insecticide-pyriproxyfen-behind-microcephaly-cases/
8. Health Impact News. Guillain Barré Syndrome is #1 Side Effect of Vaccine Injury Compensations due to Flu Shots http://healthimpactnews.com/2014/guillain-barre-syndrome-is-1-side-effect-of-vaccine-injury-compensations-due-to-flu-shots/
9. Alternatives to Pesticides factsheet on Naled,” Journal of Pesticide Reform, Fall 2002, Vol. 22, no. 3. https://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/ncap/pages/26/attachments/original/1428423409/naled.pdf?1428423409
10. EPA: Insecticide Used To Fight Zika Is Safe,” CBS Miami. http://miami.cbslocal.com/2016/08/04/epa-insecticide-used-to-fight-zika-is-safe/
11. Naled Insecticide Fact Sheet. No Spray Coalition. http://nospray.org/naled-insecticide-fact-sheet/
12.Vincent Corbel, et al. Evidence for Inhibition of cholinesterases in insect and mammalian nervous systems by the insect repellent DEET. BMC Biology 2009. http://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7007-7-47
13. (See number 11)
14. (See number 11)
15. B.K. Binukumar, et al. “Nigrostriatal Neuronal Death Following Chronic Dichlorvos Exposure: Crosstalk between Mitochondrial Impairments, Α Synuclein Aggregation, Oxidative Damage and Behavioral Changes.” Molecular Brain 3 (2010) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2996378/
16. S. F. Ali, O. Chandra, M. Hasan. Effects of an organophosphate (dichlorvos) on open field behavior and locomotor activity: correlation with regional brain monoamine levels. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 68.1 (1980) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6771797
17. Pesticides. Diabetes and the Environment. http://www.diabetesandenvironment.org/home/contam/pesticides
18. Janie F. Shelton, et al. Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Prenatal Proximity to Agricultural Pesticides: The CHARGE Study. Environmental Health Perspectives. 122.10 (2014) http://www.drperlmutter.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/ehp.1307044.alt_1.pdf
19. (See number 11)
20. (See number 11)
21. CBS. Millions of honeybees become collateral damage in fight against zika. August 31, 2016. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/millions-of-honeybees-in-south-carolina-become-collateral-damage-in-fight-against-zika/
22. Sandee LaMotte. Zika spraying kills millions of bees. CNN. September 2, 2016. http://www.cnn.com/2016/09/01/health/zika-spraying-honeybees/index.html
23. C. Nasuti C, et al. “Changes on Fecal Microbiota in Rats Exposed to Permethrin During Postnatal Development.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 23.11 (2016) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26898931
24. D. Fedeli, et al. “Early Life Permethrin Exposure Leads to Hypervitaminosis D, Nitric Oxide and Catecholamines Impairment.” Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 107.1 (2013) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25149241
25. J. Kim, et al. “Permethrin Alters Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Causes Insulin Resistance in C2C12 Myotubes.” Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology. 28.9 (2014) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24911977
26. National Pesticide Information Center. Pyrethrins General Fact Sheet. http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/pyrethrins.pdf
27. National Pesticide Information Center. Permethrin. http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/PermGen.html
28. A.V. Krebs. Buzz Off: L.L. Bean’s New Line of Sportswear Coated with a Likely Carcinogenic Bug Repellent.” Organic Consumers Association. https://www.organicconsumers.org/old_articles/clothes/llbean20805.php
29. Beyond Pesticides. Chemical Watch Fact Sheet. Permethrin. http://beyondpesticides.org/assets/media/documents/pesticides/factsheets/permethrin.pdf
30. Liz Szabo. “Exposure to Pesticides in Womb Linked to Learning Disabilities. Feb 7 2011. Organic Consumers Association. https://www.organicconsumers.org/news/exposure-pesticides-womb-linked-learning-disabilities
31. Al Sears. “How I Keep the Critters Out.” http://www.alsearsmd.com/2011/04/how-i-keep-the-critters-out/
32. (See number 18.)
33. Beyond Pesticides. Chemical Watch Fact Sheet. Piperonyl Butoxide. https://www.beyondpesticides.org/assets/media/documents/pesticides/factsheets/Piperonyl%20Butoxide.pdf
34. CBS News. cbsnews.com/live/ August 2016
35. CBS News. cbsnews.com/live August 2016
36. Julie Fidler. Pesticides Being Sprayed to Fight Zika may be More Harmful than Zika. August 2016. http://naturalsociety.com/pesticides-being-sprayed-to-fight-zika-may-be-more-harmful-than-zika-4646/
37. Grant Stern. Global Expert: Miami Beach Naled Pesticide Spraying Ineffective Against Zika Virus Carrying Mosquitoes. Huffington Post. September 19, 2016. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/global-expert-miami-beach-naled-pesticide-spraying_us_57df5266e4b04fa361d99e9b
38. No Spray Coalition. 16 Years of Toxic Pesticide Spraying Across New York City. When will it End? http://nospray.org/2015/08/17/16-years-toxic-pesticide-spraying-nyc-when-will-it-end/
39.Vincent Corbel, et al. Evidence for Inhibition of cholinesterases in insect and mammalian nervous systems by the insect repellent DEET. BMC Biology 2009. http://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7007-7-47
41. Earth Talk. Is it True that the DEET used in most mosquito repllents is toxic? Scientific American. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/is-it-true-that-the-deet/
42. Beyond Pesticides. DEET. Chemical Watch Factsheet. http://www.beyondpesticides.org/assets/media/documents/pesticides/factsheets/deet.pdf
43. Beyond Pesticides. DEET and Permethrin a Dangerous Combination. http://www.beyondpesticides.org/programs/mosquitos-and-insect-borne-diseases/publications/deet-and-permethrin-a-dangerous-combination deet and permethring together and gulf war syndrome study.
44. Health Ranger. BONKERS: Disney World and SeaWorld now handing out DEET Insect Repellent that causes seizures, encephalopathy and comas in children. http://www.naturalnews.com/055122_DEET_insecticide_Disney_World_Zika_mosquitoes.html#ixzz4LHPk1Ojd
45. (See number 39.)
46. Sara Novak. CDC Confirms Lemon Eucalyptus Oil as Effective as DEET. Treehugger.com May 14, 2011.http://www.treehugger.com/lawn-garden/cdc-confirms-lemon-eucalyptus-oil-as-effective-as-deet.html
47. No Spray Coalition. Catnip Repels Mosquitoes More Effectively than Deet. http://nospray.org/catnip-repels-mosquitoes-more-effectively-than-deet/
48. (See number 37.)
49. (See number 18.)